The proof that strong induction and induction (also called weak or simple induction) are equivalent is a bit tricky. Showing that strong induction implies induction is straightforward; however, showing that induction implies strong induction requires using induction on itself—very meta!
In addition to induction over the natural numbers, other types of induction are possible. For example, transfinite induction extends things to more generic well-ordered sets.
Administrative note: for the spring and summer months, we will be conducting a study involving Sequential Math in a first year linear algebra course. We will be making custom comics for the course, which we won't be able to share with readers until the study is finished. But don't worry, we'll still post one comic per month and you will get a windfall of comics come the end of the spring term!